Glossary of Terms

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The Principles of Material Handling

Adaptability Principle: 
Use methods and equipment that can best perform a variety of tasks and applications where special purpose equipment is not justified.
Obsolescence Principle: 
Replace obsolete handling methods and equipment when more efficient methods or equipment will improve operations.
Automation Principle: 
Provide automation to include production, handling, and storage functions.
Performance Principle: 
Determine effectiveness of handling performance in terms of expense per unit handled.
Capacity Principle: 
Use handling equipment to help achieve desired production capacity.
Planning Principle: 
Plan all material handling and storage activities to obtain maximum overall operating efficiency.
Control Principle: 
Use material handling activities to improve control of production, inventory and other handling.
Safety Principle: 
Provide suitable methods/equipment for safe handling.
Dead Weight Principle: 
Reduce ratio of dead weight of mobile handling equipment to load carried.
Space Utilization Principle: 
Make optimum utilization of building cube.
Equipment Selection Principle: 
In selecting handling equipment consider all aspects of the material handled-the movement and the method of use.
Standardization Principle: 
Standardize handling methods as well as type and sizes of handling equipment. 
Gravity Principle: 
Utilize gravity to move material wherever practical.
System Principle: 
Integrate as many handling activities as is practical into coordinated systems of operations, covering vendor, receiving, storage, production, inspection, packaging, warehousing, shipping, transportation, and customer.
Maintenance Principle: 
Plan for preventive maintenance and scheduled repairs of all handling equipment.
Unit Size Principle: 
Increase the quantity, size, or weight of units, loads, or flow rates.
Material Flow Principle: 
Provide an operation sequence and equipment layout optimizing material flow.
Utilization Principle: 
Plan for the optimum utilization of handling equipment and manpower.
Mechanization Principle: 
Mechanize handling operations.


ADC: (Automatic Data Collection) The term used to describe direct entry of data into a computer system, programmable logic controller (PLC), or other microprocessor-controlled device without using a keyboard.

AGV: (Automated Guided Vehicle) These vehicles are equipped with electromagnetic, optical or other systems for guidance and employ various types of collision avoidance systems. AGVs can have reprogramming capabilities for path selection and positioning.

ANSI: (American National Standards Institute) A non-governmental group responsible for the development of the standard character set of OCR, standard bar code symbology specifications (Code 39, Codabar, and Interleaved 2 of 5 Code), and other standard relating to government and industry

ASCII: (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A coding system used to represent all text characters and control codes a computer is capable of producing.

AS/RS: (Automated Storage/Retrieval System) A combination of equipment and controls which handles, stores, and retrieves materials with precision accuracy and speed under a defined degree of automation. Systems vary from relatively simple, manually controlled order-picking machines operating in small storage structures to giant, computer-controlled storage and retrieval systems totally integrated into the manufacturing and distribution process.

ATM: (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) A high-speed data communications standard. It uses fixed-length packets and facilitates transmission at up to 155 megabits per second. Also known as cell relay.

AUI: (Attachment Unit Interface) A 15 pin shielded, twisted pair Ethernet cable used (optionally to connect between network devices and a MAU).

Agenda: A list of the topics and tasks to be addressed in a meeting.

Algorithm: Sequence of instructions with a finite number of steps, to complete a given problem or task.

Amortization: (1) As applied to a capitalized asset, the distribution of the initial cost by periodic charges to operations as in depreciation. Most properly applies to assets with indefinite life. (2) The reduction of a debt by either periodic or irregular payments. (3) A plan to pay off a financial obligation according to some prearranged program. (4) the time period used to depreciate and pay for an asset on the "books". Often referred to as "write off."

Analog Control: Control signals that are processed through analog means. Analog control can be electronic, hydraulic, or pneumatic. A data-transfer method that uses continuously variable physical quantities for transmitting voice and data signals over conventional telephone lines. Analog transmission speed is limited by the bandwidth of the human voice.

Artificial Intelligence: (AI) The ability of a machine system such as the ASAP software to perceive anticipated or unanticipated new conditions, decide what actions must be performed under the conditions, and plan the actions accordingly.

Aspect Ratio: In a bar code symbol, the ratio of bar height to symbol length.

Assembly Language: Computer language composed of brief expressions in mnemonic codes that are later translated into machine-level language for execution by the computer.

Autodiscrimination: A feature present in some scanners allowing the device to distinguish, from a predetermined set of symbologies, which particular code is being read.

ASAP Workstations: Those computer workstations where the ASAP Software may be used by the End-User to induct orders, store and pick work-in-process items, supervise and manage orders within the ASAP Software.

Automated Order Picking Machines: Specialized automated order picking machines have been developed by a number of manufactures for specific application in high volume small parts order picking operations. These systems have typically been applied in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and personal care products industries. Automated order picking machines are optimized for high speed order picking of small packaged items which are consistent in terms of the size and strength of the package. Typical items picked by such systems include packaged health and beauty aids, packages automotive parts such as spark plugs, points, etc., pharmaceutical items such as pills and medications, and cosmetics.

Automatic Lubricator: A device used to automatically lubricate the chain, trolley wheels, or other carousel or conveyor components as they pass.

Automatic Sortation: The electronic recognition of cartons by size or code enabling these to be sorted into groups.

Automation: (1) A system or method in which many or all of the operations of production, movement and inspection of parts and materials are automatically controlled or performed by self-operating machinery, electronic devices, etc. (2) Automatically-controlled operations of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that replace human observation, effort, and decision.

Average Peak Staffing: A method of arriving at the number of people needed to staff each warehouse department calculated between average work load and maximum (peak). Designed to compromise between under and over-staffing.

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BPS: (Bits per second) Units of transmission speed. (Bits per second) Units of transmission speed. (Bits per second) Units of transmission speed.

Backbone: The main cable in a network.

Background: The spaces, quiet zones and area surrounding a printed symbol.

Ball Transfer: A group of ball transfers over which flat surface objects may be moved in any direction.

Bar: The darker element of a printed bar code symbol.

Bar Code: An automatic identification technology that encodes information into an array of adjacent varying width parallel rectangular bars and spaces.

Bar Code Character: A single group of bars and spaces that represents a specific number (often one of numbers, letters, punctuation marks or other symbols). This is the smallest subset of a car code symbol that contains data.

Bar Code Density: The number of data characters that can be represented in a linear unit of measure. Bar code density is often expressed in characters per inch.

Bar Code Label: A label that carries a bar code symbol is suitable to be affixed to an article.

Bar Height or Bar Length: The bar dimension perpendicular to the bar width. Also called height. Scanning is performed in an axis perpendicular to the bar length.

Bar Width: The thickness if a bar measured form the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same bar.

Baseband LAN: A LAN that uses a single carrier frequency over a single channel. Ethernet, Token Ring and Arcnet LANs use baseboard transmission.

Batch Picking: (1) A technique used to group orders to maximize order selection efficiency, by totaling all orders for the same item and picking them all during one visit to the pick-front. (2) Batch picking consists of an order picker picking all the units of one item needed to satisfy a multiple of customer orders.

Baud: Unit of signal frequency in signals per second. Not synonymous with bits per second since signals can represent more than one bit. Baud equals bits per second only when the signal represents a single bit.

Bay: A cubic space with limits normally defined by functional or physical constraints, as example: (a) structural bay, the space defined by four columns, (b) storage bay, the space defined by the size of a block of material stored within it.

Belt Conveyor: A circular fabric, rubber, plastic, leather or metal belt operated over a suitable drive, tail end and bend terminals and over belt idlers or a slider bed for handling materials, packages, or objects placed directly upon the belt. The top and return runs may be utilized for handling materials. Belt conveyors can operate on level surfaces, on an incline, or decline with limits on the slope of either unless restraint is provided.

Benchmark: A standard of measurement with enough characteristics common to the individual units of a population to facilitate economical comparison of attributes for units selected from a sample. Benchmarks may be used for job evaluation, performance rating, establishing operational standards, standard data development, cost estimating, and other purposes.

Beneficial Use: The date upon which, for the first time, the licensed ASAP Software has directed or otherwise facilitated the movement and System directed put-away, replenishment, picking, and other SOW functionality of licensee product materials for five consecutive business work days. Consequently, the End-User makes reasonable productive and commercial use of the System although the Acceptance Test Elements may not be completed.

Bill of Lading: A negotiable document by which a carrier acknowledges receipt of freight and contracts for its movement. The surrender of the original order bill of lading, properly enclosed, is required by transportation lines upon delivery of the freight, in accordance with the terms of bill of lading.

Binaries: Binary machine readable forms of programs which have been compiled or assembled. As opposed to Source language forms of programs.

Binary: Characteristics of having only two states such as current on an current off. The binary number system uses only ones and zeros.

Bit: The smallest unit of data processing information. A bit (or binary digit) assumes the value of either 1 or 0.

Black Box Testing: Also known as Functional Testing. Used to determine program conformation to specification.

Brainstorming: A method for generating ideas and opinions about a problem or issue that will be raised during a meeting.

Bridge: A networking device that connects two LANs and forwards or filters data packets between the LANs, based on their destination addresses.

Broadband: A data transmission technique allowing multiple high-speed signals to share the bandwidth of a single cable via frequency division multiplexing.

Broadband Network: A network that uses multiple carrier frequencies to transmit multiplexed signals on a single cable. Several networks may coexist on a single cable without interfering with one another.

Brouter: A device that routes specific protocols, such as TCP/IP and IPX, and bridges other protocols, thereby combining the functions of both routers and bridges.

Bulk Storage: (1) An area in the warehouse set aside for storage of multiple pallets of a given product. (2) Storage in warehouses of any large quantity of supplies, usually in original containers, or storage of liquids or solids such as coal, lumber, rubber bales, petroleum products, or ores in tanks or piles. (3) The area within a facility or warehouse which is devoted to the placement of large, greater than loose-issue quantities of items, or in which each single item is too large to be placed in a bin storage location.

Bus: A LAN topology in which all the nodes are connected to a single cable. All nodes are considered equal and receive transmissions on the medium.

Byte: A data unit of eight bits.

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CAD: (Computer-Aided Design) The use of an interactive-terminal workstation, usually with graphics capability, to automate the design of products. CAD includes functions like drafting and parts-fitup. (Computer-Aided Design) The use of an interactive-terminal workstation, usually with graphics capability, to automate the design of products. CAD includes functions like drafting and parts-fitup. (Computer-Aided Design) The use of an interactive-terminal workstation, usually with graphics capability, to automate the design of products. CAD includes functions like drafting and parts-fitup.

CAM: (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) Working from a product design likely to exist in a CAD database, CAM encompasses the computer-based technologies that physically produce the product, including part-program preparation, process planning, tool design, process analysis, and part processing by numerically controlled machines.

CCD Scanner: (Charged Coupled Device). This device operates by flooding the bar code with light using a CCD array to sense the bar code. CCD scanners are available in both contact and non-contact versions.

CRT: (Cathode Ray Tube) Terminal Consists of a small visual display and a keyboard similar to that of a typewriter. With a CRT Terminal, an operator can access a computer to enter data or receive information and/or instructions.

CSP: (Customer Support Program) ASAP Automation agreement with customers on expectations and services provided for supporting our systems.

Cantilever Rack: A rack consisting of arms cantilevered from column(s). A cantilever rack is most useful when there is a need for a full clear shelf that can be loaded form the front without obstructing uprights.

Capacity: (1) The maximum load in pounds, or the maximum load in pounds at a given load center, that a truck can safely transport and/or stack to a specified height. (2) The number of pieces, volume or weight of material that can be handled by a conveyor in a unit of time when operating at a given speed.

Capacity Rated: The rated or design capacity of the conveying or load carrying equipment as stated by vendor.

Carousel: Carousels carry a number of storage baskets suspended at the top and bottom by a powered track system. the baskets are moved around the carousel unit under operator or computer control and order picking takes place from the basket which is stopped at an operator station.

Carousel Dwell Time: This is the time an operator is waiting for the carousel to position.

Carrier: A device of various types attached to or hung from trolleys to support a load.

Catwalk: An elevated service platform or walkway constructed to permit access to equipment, controls or other devices not frequently used. The catwalk generally is designed to support only itself and the weight of men required for access to the aforementioned items.

Center of Gravity: The point in a rigid body where the entire mass of the body could be concentrated and produce the same gravity resultant as for the body itself.

Change of Elevation: Vertical distance between the upper horizontal track of a vertical curve to the corresponding point on the lower horizontal track.

Channel: The data path between two nodes.

Check Digit: A check digit serves the same purpose as a check character, but it may assume numeric values only.

Chute: A trough through which bulk materials or objects are directed and lowered by gravity. The trough may be open or enclosed, straight or curved.

Circulation Loop: Material, packages, or objects that remain in or on a conveyor by virtue of not being discharged or removed from it.

Client: The requester program in a client/server computing architecture.

Client/Server Computing: A type of processing in which a client requests a service or information from a server that performs the service and/or returns the requested information to the client. In networking, refers to a network in which several PC-type systems (clients) are connected to one or more powerful, central computers (servers). The servers act as central storehouses, serving files, information, and applications as requested by clients. The clients do most of the processing and the server is mainly responsible for storing information and passing it to the client machines when they request it. In databases, client/server refers to a model in which a client system runs a database application (front end) that accesses information in a database management system situated on a server (back end).

Closed Circuit Conveyor: An arrangement of conveyor or conveyors capable of moving material through all portions of a circuit, and returning the undistributed portion to the starting point.

Coaxial Cable: An electrical cable with a solid wire conductor at its center surrounded by insulating materials and an outer metal screen conductor with and axis of curvature coinciding with the inner - hence "coaxial". Examples are standard Ethernet cable and ThinWire Ethernet cable.

Code 39 (3 of 9): A bar code that encodes 43 data characters (0 through 0, A through Z, six symbols, and a space). Each character is represented by nine elements (five bars and four spaces); three of the elements are wide and six elements are narrow. Nominal bar code density is 9.4 characters per inch (cpi) (high density) with other densities of 8.3, 4.7, 3.0, and 1.7 cpi.

Code 128: A bar code containing a full 128-character ASCII set. Special features include bar and space character parity for character integrity, a function character for symbol linking, and spare function characters for expansion or unique applications. A character consists of three bars and three spaces, with each bar or space contain one to four elements.

Coefficient of Friction: A numerical expression of the ratio between the force of contact existing between two surfaces and the resistant force tending to oppose the motion of one with respect to the other. The coefficient of friction is used in determining the power necessary to drive a machine; to determine the slope of angles used in hoppers, bin, chutes, and bunkers; or to determine the maximum angle of inclination for a conveyor.

Common Carrier: A carrier engaged in the business of transporting goods and/or persons for compensation without discrimination.

Communication Server: A dedicated, standalone system that manages communications activities for other computers.

Computer Controlled: A system that is controlled by a computer without humans handling the product manually with a machine.

Contact Readers: A scanner that must physically touch the bar code to read it.

Control Panel: An assembly of electrical components (magnetic or static) which governs the flow of power to or from a motor in response to signals from a master switch, push-button station, or remote control.

Control System: A hardware/software system that has its primary function the collection and analysis of feedback for a given set of functions for the purpose of controlling the functions. Control may be implemented by monitoring and/or systematically modifying parameters or policies used in those functions, or by preparing control reports that initiate useful action with respect to significant deviations and exceptions.

Conveyor: A horizontal, inclined or vertical device for moving or transporting bulk materials, packages, or objects in a path predetermined by the design of the device and having points of loading and discharge fixed, or selective.

Conveyor Width: (1) In unit handling, the dimension inside to inside of frame rails. (2) In belt conveyors for bulk materials, the width of the belt.

Cost of Capital: The cost to borrow capital, usually expressed as a percentage.

Counterbalanced Truck: Fork lift truck using rear-mounted batteries and/or weights for maintaining balance. The truck is equipped with load engaging means wherein all the load during normal transporting is external to the polygon formed by wheel contacts. Conventional or counterbalanced fork lift trucks carry the pallet straight out in front of the machine on permanently aligned forks. These trucks must turn at right angles in order to place the material in storage, They require wide aisles (10 to 14 feet) and substantial floor capacity. They are available with both electric and internal combustion power.

Critical Path: Sequence of jobs or activities in a network analysis project such that the total duration equals the sum of the duration of the individual jobs in the sequence. There is no time leeway or slack (float) in activity along a critical path (i.e. if the time to complete one or more jobs in the critical path increases, the total production time increases).

Cube: (1) The product of length by width by depth. (2) The total area inside a truck trailer. The length times the width times the height of the trailer is the cube space. (3) The true storage capacity of a building: L x W x H.

Cube Utilization: The ratio of occupied space to total cubic space available usually expressed as a percentage.

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DOF: (Depth of Field) The distance between the maximum and minimum plane in which a bar code reader is capable of reading symbols of a specified x dimension. (Depth of Field) The distance between the maximum and minimum plane in which a bar code reader is capable of reading symbols of a specified x dimension. (Depth of Field) The distance between the maximum and minimum plane in which a bar code reader is capable of reading symbols of a specified x dimension.

Data Warehouse: A blend of technologies including relational and multidimensional analysis, client/server architecture, graphical user interfaces, powerful meta data modeling and more. These technologies combine to enable the integration of multiple operational databases into a single database designed specifically for analytical processing, such as decision support. The resultant "subject-oriented database" is designed with the end-user access in mind.

Dead Reckoning: The AGV leaves the guidewire and then returns to it, under the control of a computer.

Decoder: As part of a bar code reading system, the electronic package that receives the signals form the scanner, performs the algorithm to interpret the signals into meaningful data, and provides the interface to other devices.

Dedicated Circuit: A circuit that supplies power to a specific computer, and no other devices. This setup requires running a pair of wires and a ground from the main distribution panel at the electrical service entrance to the computer. A dedicated circuit eliminates the problem of voltage sags when other loads kick in, because it won't be carrying other loads.

Depreciation: (1) Decline in value of a capitalized asset (2) A form of capital recovery applicable to property with two or more year life span, in which an appropriate portion of the asset value is periodically charged to current operations. (3) The loss of value because of obsolescence or due to attrition. In accounting, depreciation is the allocation of this loss of value according to some plan.

Digital: The representation of data in on/off signals of 1s and 0s. Digital transmission lines offer faster speeds, more accuracy, and better flexibility than analog lines.

Direct Labor: (1) Work which is readily chargeable to or identifiable with a specific product. (2) Work performed on a product or service that advances the product or service towards ors completion or objectives.

Direct Thermal Printing: A non-impact printing technique consisting of square dots that are selectively heated and cooled to form an image on heat-sensitive paper. As the material passes under a print head, tiny elements on the head selectively generate heat to darken areas of the facestock and create images.

Discounted Cash Flow: (1) The present worth of sequence in time of sums of money when the sequence is considered as a flow of cash into and/or our of an economic unit. (2) An investment analysis which compares the present worth of projected receipts and disbursements occurring at designated future ties in order to estimate the rate of return from the investment or project.

Distributed Processing: A system in which each computer or node in the network performs its own processing and manages some of its data while the network facilitates communications between the nodes.

Distribution: The broad range of activities concerned with efficient movement of finished products form the end of the production line to the consumer; in some cases it may include the movement of raw materials from the source of supply to the beginning of the production line. These activities include freight transportation, warehousing, material handling, protective packaging, inventory control, plant and warehouse site selection, order processing, market and sales forecasting, customer service, and attendant management information systems; in some cases it may include buying activities.

Distribution Center: Intermediate warehouse(s) where products from different sources are assembled for shipment and distribution to specific customer locations.

Dock Leveler: An adjustable rectangular platform of approximately highway truck width built into the dock edge used to compensate for the difference between varying truck bed heights and delivery platforms of a facility.

Dock to Stock Time: The elapsed time measured for an inbound item from trailer docking to product putaway.

Download: The transfer of a file or information from one network node to another. Generally refers to transferring a file from a "big" node such as a computer, to a "small" node such as a terminal server or printer.

Downtime: A period of time during which an operation is halted due to the lack of materials, a machinery breakdown, or the like.

Drive-In Rack: A rack consisting of upright frames, rails, and ties permitting a vehicle to enter the structure from one side only to pickup or deposit pallets on continuous rails. The structure dictates first-in, last-out storage.

Drive-Through Racks: Are similar to drive-in racks in that they allow the fork truck and pallet to enter the rack structure and place the pallet on rails. However, the drive through rack I not obstructed at the end by bracing, but gets its rigidity from its own overhead bracing or by tying into the overhead structure. FIFO movement is possible with drive through racks whereas FILO movement must usually be acceptable with drive through racks.

Duplexing: A duplexed disk array uses two or more host adapters. Each adapter controls one or more disk drives, so if one adapter fails,, the array continues to function. For example, a duplexed array may be set up using two disk controllers, with two drives connected to each controller. If the first disk of one array is mirrored to the first disk of the second array, then a backup exists if the first disk controller fails.

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EAN: European Article Numbering system, the international standard bar code for retail food packages. European Article Numbering system, the international standard bar code for retail food packages. European Article Numbering system, the international standard bar code for retail food packages.

Economic Life: The period of time, extending from the date of installation to the date of retirement from the intended service, over which a prudent owner expects to retain the property, so as to obtain a minimum cost.

Economic Return: The profit derived from a project or business enterprise without consideration of obligations to financial contributors and claims of others based on profit.

Efficiency, Labor: (1) The ratio of standard performance time to actual performance time, usually expressed as a percentage. (2) the ratio of actual performance numbers (e.g., number of pieces) to standard performance numbers, usually expressed as a percentage.

Eighty/Twenty (80/20) Rule: The theory that a large proportion of warehouse activity will be generated by a small proportion of the SKU.

End-of-Aisle Picking Systems: High density mechanized binnable parts systems such as miniload or carousel units provide dense storage and maximize the use of available storage height. These systems are particularly useful when high transaction rates and large inventory levels result in unacceptably high travel times for man-to-part order picking methods. By delivering the part to the order picker, operator travel time is eliminated. These systems are also effective in situations requiring additional packaging, checking, or processing which would be impractical to provide on a mobile order picking unit.

End Node: A node such as a PC that can only send and receive information for its own use. It cannot route and forward information to another node.

End-User: The licensed user of the ASAP software.

Ergonomics: (1) Design of working conditions to better accommodate the human body capabilities and limitations. (Synonym - human factors). (2) the study of work tasks with emphasis on reducing to a practical minimum the physiological cost of doing the work.

Error Correcting RAM: Error correcting RAM (Random Access Memory) can actually correct single-bit errors; standard parity RAM can only detect them.

Ethernet: The most popular LAN technology in use today. The IEEE standard 802.3 defines the rules for configuring an Ethernet network. It is a baseband network that runs over thin coax, thick coax, twisted pair or fiber optic cable.

Expert System: A computer program, usually based on artificial intelligence techniques, that performs decision functions which are similar to those of human expert and on demand, can justify to the user its line of reasoning. Typical applications in the field of robotics are high-level robot programming, planning and control of assembly, and processing and recovery of errors.

Extended LAN: A network consisting of LANs connected by bridges. Up to seven bridges can connect LANs into an extended LAN.

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FDDI: (Fiber optic Data Distribution Interface). A cable interface capable of transmitting data at 100 Mbps. Originally specified for fiber lines, FDDI can also operate over twisted-pair cable for short distances. (Fiber optic Data Distribution Interface). A cable interface capable of transmitting data at 100 Mbps. Originally specified for fiber lines, FDDI can also operate over twisted-pair cable for short distances. (Fiber optic Data Distribution Interface). A cable interface capable of transmitting data at 100 Mbps. Originally specified for fiber lines, FDDI can also operate over twisted-pair cable for short distances.

FIFO: (1) First-in, first-out. (2) An inventory valuation method, in which costs of material are transferred in chronological order.

FMS: (Flexible Manufacturing System). An arrangement of machine tools that is capable of standing alone, interconnected by a workpiece transport system, and controlled by a central computer. Often costs of an AGV or conveyor delivering work pieces (machine tool pallets) and tools to machines.

FSD: (Functional Specifications Document) A document developed by ASAP Automation after Receipt of Order. The FSD describes in detail the System to be provided by ASAP Automation and to be approved by the End-User before programming, ordering of equipment, or installation may begin.

FTP: (File Transfer Protocol) A low-overhead means of transferring files from one system to another on a TCP/IP network.

Facilitator: The person responsible for planning and structuring the meeting, setting up the agenda, inviting participants, and running the meeting.

Family Grouping: A method of storing the same, or similar products in a common area.

Fault Tolerant: A type of computer that duplicates some or all of its parts to protect against system interruptions induced by part failure.

Fiber-Optic Cable: A transmission medium composed if a central glass or plastic optical fiber cable surrounded by cladding and an outer protective sheath. It transmits digital signals in the form of modulated light from a laser of LED (light-emitting diode).

Filtering: Process whereby an Ethernet switch or bridge reads the contents of a packet and then finding that the packet does not need to be forwarded, drops it. A filtering rate is the rate at which a device can receive packets and drop them without any loss of incoming packets or delay in processing.

Firmware: Alterable programs in semi-permanent storage, e.g. some type of read-only or flash re-programmable memory.

Fixed Beam Scanner: A bar code scanner that uses a stationary laser beam and relies upon the relative motion of the item to be read as it passes before the reader.

Floor Space Utilization: The ratio of occupied floor space to total floor space available, usually expressed as a percentage.

Flow Analysis: The detailed examination of the progressive travel, either of men or material, from place to place and/or from operation to operation. The examination consists of questioning the reason for the existence of every aspect of the operation, or the travel; and, also, the examination seeks reasons for determining how the progressive travel, or the operation, may be changed or modified to achieve the utmost economies in both time and material, all other things being equal.

Flow Diagram: A representation of the location of activities or operations and the flow of materials between activities on a pictorial layout of a process. Usually accompanied by a flow process chart.

Flow Process Chart: A graphic, symbolic representation of the work performed, or to be performed, on a product as it passes through some or all of the stages of a process.

Flow Rack: (1) A tiered structure with multiple storage compartments with conveyors as the load supporting members. (2) Gravity storage or live storage non-powered conveyor lanes pitched at a slight incline so that two or more loads can be stored in one lane with gravity providing the means of movement within that lane. Flow racks are designed for loads to "flow" to the unloading position. As one pallet or load is removed from the front of the rack, another load moves forward to fill the empty space. Movement is at a controlled rate by means of live rail, gravity wheel, or roller conveyors. Flow racks permit efficient stock rotation with high density storage. Flow racks are suited to situations where there are large number of stock-keeping units and items are picked frequently in small quantities. Several benefits may be obtained in flow rack applications. First, flow racks allow high-density storage, eliminating many aisles and thus providing maximum use of available space. Second, inventory control is simplified for either FIFO or LIFO systems. Third, there is less congestion since restocking does not interfere with picking. Also, order picking is quicker than for a conventional static shelf system.

Fork Lift Truck: (1) Material handling vehicle designed to move loads by means of steel fingers (forks inserted under a load. (2 A high lift self-loading truck, equipped with load carriage and forks for transporting and tiering loads.

Forwarding: Process by which an Ethernet switch or bridge reads the contents of a packet and then passes that packet on the appropriate attached segment. A forwarding rate is the time that it takes the device to execute all of the steps.

Frequency Distribution: A specification of the way in which frequencies of members of a population are distributed according to the values of the varieties which they exhibit.

Full-Duplex: The ability for information to flow in both directions simultaneously over a communications link.

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Gate: A section of conveyor equipped with a hinge mechanism to provide an opening for a walkway, etc. A section of conveyor equipped with a hinge mechanism to provide an opening for a walkway, etc. A section of conveyor equipped with a hinge mechanism to provide an opening for a walkway, etc.

Gateway: A device for interconnecting two or more dissimilar networks.

Gateway Server: A communications server which provides access between networks which use different access protocols.

General Contractor: Once vendor who agrees to provide or sub-contract for all equipment/hardware and software needed for an entire installation.

Glass Box Testing: A low level detailed perspective. Tests internal structure of a program.

Gravity Conveyor: Roller or wheel conveyor over which objects are advanced manually by gravity.

Guard Rail: Members paralleling the path of a conveyor and limiting the objects or carriers to movement in a defined path.

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Half-Duplex: The ability to alternate between transmitting and receiving data over a communications link. The ability to alternate between transmitting and receiving data over a communications link. The ability to alternate between transmitting and receiving data over a communications link.

Hand Held Scanner: A scanner held and operated by a human, enabling the scanner to be brought to the symbol. Most popular hand held scanners are the laser scanners and the wand.

Hand Pallet Truck: A truck designed to lift loads off the floor high enough to move them from one location to another. Positioning of the truck is by hand. The lifting surface can be a platform or forks. The platform unit is used for handling skids and the fork type unit for handling pallets.

Header: The initial part of a data packet or frame containing identifying information such as the source of the data, its destinations, and length.

Honeycombing: (1) the practice of removing merchandise in pallet-load quantities where the space is not exhausted in an orderly fashion. This results in inefficiencies due to the fact that the received merchandise may not be efficiently stored in the space which is created by the honeycombing. (2) The storing of withdrawing of supplies in a manner which results in vacant space that is not usable for storage of other items. (3) Creation of unoccupied space resulting from withdrawal of unit loads. This is one of the major hidden costs in warehousing.

Horizontal bar Code: A bar code or symbol presented in such a manner that its overall length dimension is parallel to the horizon. The bars are presented in an array which look like a picket fence.

Hot Swapping: Changing a failed drive while still on-line.

Hub: A central wiring device that repeats or regenerates data signals sent over the network. More sophisticated hubs can provide bridging, routing, communications, and internet working functions.

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IEEE 802.3: The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) standard that defines the CSMA/CD media access method and the physical and date link layer specifications of a local area network. Among others, it includes 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 10BASE-FL, and 10BASE-T Ethernet implementations. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) standard that defines the CSMA/CD media access method and the physical and date link layer specifications of a local area network. Among others, it includes 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 10BASE-FL, and 10BASE-T Ethernet implementations. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) standard that defines the CSMA/CD media access method and the physical and date link layer specifications of a local area network. Among others, it includes 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 10BASE-FL, and 10BASE-T Ethernet implementations.

I/O: Acronym for Input/Output. (1) Describes all activities used to move data in and out of a processor. Also is the peripheral that receives data from the processor, or transmits data to processor. (2) The location of I/O activities in a storage/retrieval system.

IPX: (Internetworking Packet Exchange). A networking protocol similar to IP (Internet Protocol).

ISA: (Industry Standard Architecture) The specification for standard personal computer expansion slots. The slot must be 16 bit in size.

ISDN: (Integrated Services Digital Network) A limited set of standard interfaces to a digital communications network. ISDN is capable of carrying data, voice, and video on digital circuits.

Idle Time: Time during which a worker or a piece of equipment is not working.

Indexing: Controlled spacing or feeding.

Indirect Labor: Labor which does not add to the value of a product but which must be performed to support its manufacture. May not be readily identifiable with a specific product or service.

Infant Mortality Period: Electronic components are most likely to fail when they are first used. This phenomenon, referred to as infant mortality, applies to PCs and other electronic components. After electronic components have been used for a period of time, typically a couple of days, they are unlikely to fail.

Inspection: A process to ensure incoming merchandise meets required standards (synonym - quality control)

Interleaved Bar Code: A bar code in which characters are paired together using bars to represent the first character and spaces to represent the second. i.e. interleaved 2 of 5.

Internet: A worldwide network of computers and computer networks at private organizations, government institutions, and universities, over which people share files, send electronic messages, and have access to huge amounts of information.

Inventory Control: In a complete inventory management system, it includes stock levels, stock locations, reorder points, balance-on-hand, item physical description, rotation, etc.

Inventory Turnover Ratio: Measures the return obtained from inventory investments and provides an indication of the movement of materials. Usually expressed as the ration of annual sales to average inventory investment on hand.

Item: A product which is identifiably different from all other products or packages by nature of its name, package, label or material substance. (See SKU)

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LAN: (Local Area Network) A group of computer equipment connected by cables and software and sharing certain peripherals, such as hard disks and computers. (Local Area Network) A group of computer equipment connected by cables and software and sharing certain peripherals, such as hard disks and computers. (Local Area Network) A group of computer equipment connected by cables and software and sharing certain peripherals, such as hard disks and computers.

LDP (Light Directed Picking): A system where a computer feeds to an operator step-by-step commands to accomplish each task.

LED: (Light Emitting Diode) A semiconductor that produces light at wavelength determined by its chemical composition. the light source often found in light pens.

LIFO: (Last-in, First-out) An inventory valuation method, in which costs are transferred in reverse chronological order.

LTL: (Less Than Truckload) A load that does no exceed the maximum weight or cube space allotted to a truckload (i.e., a shipment of one or two pallet loads.

Laser Scanner: An optical bar code reading device using low energy laser light beam as its source of illumination.

Layout: (1) A floor plan showing assignment of gross space for storage operations and supporting functions. (2) A graphical representation to scale of a facility, usually two dimensions, but sometimes in three.

Layout Drawing: Shows the placing of equipment, machinery or components.

Level of Automation: The degree to which a process has been made automatic. Relevant to the level of automation are questions of automatic failure recovery, the variety of situations whiten will be automatically handled, and the conditions under which manual intervention or action by human beings is required.

Line Item: (1) A unique item of inventory (synonyms - part number, SKU) (2) A separate item of supply on a transaction document.

Line Speed: Expressed in bps, the maximum rate at which data can reliably be transmitted over a line using given hardware.

Local Network Interconnect: A Port Multiplier, or concentrator supporting multiple active devices or communications controller, either used standalone or attached to standard Ethernet cable.

Location Analysis: The details of the placement of workstations, buffers, material handling equipment, and so on, are worked out. Location analysis may also be applied to location of workpieces, accesses, and tools within a workstation. Typical factors to be considered are: transport time or costs, workstation dimensions, transporter reach, fixed costs, and capacity limits.

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MAU: (Multiple Access Unit). A device used to convert signals from one Ethernet medium to another. (Multiple Access Unit). A device used to convert signals from one Ethernet medium to another. (Multiple Access Unit). A device used to convert signals from one Ethernet medium to another.

Machine Language: The lowest level language used directly by a machine.

Man-Up Turret Truck: A fork truck functionally similar to a turret truck but equipped with an operator platform which rises with the forks, permitting order picking.

Management Control: Benefits both tangible and intangible received from a system which provides better overall operational control.

Manufacturing Cell: A collection of machines, grouped together for processing of a family of parts.

Material Control: Benefits in terms of material flow and information flow received from a warehouse management system integrated to a material handling system.

Material Handling: The movement, storage, control, and protection of materials and products throughout the process of their manufacture, distribution, consumption and disposal.

Methods Analysis: That parts of methods engineering normally involving an examination and analysis of an operation or a work-cycle broken down into its constituent parts for the purpose of improvement, elimination of unnecessary steps, and/or establishing and recording in detail a proposed method of performance.

Microkernel: The kernel is the heart of the operating system, the basic services. A microkernel strips that heart down to a bare minimum and puts everything else outside in easy-to-change modules. Among other advantages, a microkernel operating system can appear to be just about any other operating system by changing the modules layered on top of it.

Minimum Pressure Accumulating Conveyor: A type of conveyor designed to minimize build-up of pressure between adjacent packages or cartons.

Mirroring: A mirrored disk subsystem connects two disk drives to one controller. All data that is written to the first disk drive is copied to the second disk drive, thus establishing an on-line back-up; If one disk fails, the second disk contains an exact duplicate of the information, so nothing is lost.

Misread: A condition that occurs when the data output of a reader does not agree with the data encoded in the bar code symbol.

Modem: A peripheral that converts the digital language of the PC to a series of high and low pitched tones for transmission over standard (analog) telephone lines.

Moving Beam Scanner: A non-contact bar code reader that dynamically searches for code marks by sweeping a moving optical beam (usually a laser beam) through a field of view. This type of scanner is used when bar codes are moving at high speed when hand held scanners are impractical. This type of scanner eliminates the need for a human operator.

Multiplexer: Also known as a port concentrator, a multiplexer is a piece of data communication equipment that allows several different connected devices to transmit data to or receive data from a single master communication port.

Multiplexing: Transmitting multiple signals simultaneously on a single channel.

Multiport Repeater: A repeater, either standalone or connected to standard Ethernet cable, for interconnecting up to eight ThinWire Ethernet segments.

Multitasking: An operating system that is able to work on more than one program at a time. Some operating systems (and add-ons like Microsoft Windows) can multitask if the programs cooperate by passing control back to the operating system at intervals. Others, like UNIX, and OS/2 do preemptive multitasking. The operating system can multitask whether the programs cooperate or not.

Multithread: A thread is the minimum piece of a program which can execute independently. A multithread operating system, such as OS/2, can execute many threads at once. This speeds up processing and makes better use of the computer resources. The executing threads can be from many different programs. Threads are similar to processes in UNIX.

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NFS: (Network File System) A protocol developed by Sun Microsystems that allows computers to share files transparently.

NIC: (Network Interface Card) An adapter card that is inserted into a computer, and contains the necessary software and electronics to enable the station to communicate over the network.

NLM: (Network Loadable Module)

NOS: (Network Operating System) The software for a network that runs in a file server and controls access to files and other resources from multiple users. It can run on top of DOS and also provides security and administrative tools.

Narrow Aisle Truck: A self-loading truck primarily intended for right angle stacking in aisles narrower than those normally required by counter-balanced trucks of the same capacity. Narrow aisle type equipment is represented by three basic categories of vehicle: the straddle, reach, and side loading trucks. In straddle trucks, the load is carried between the front outrigger wheels to minimize the need for counterbalancing.

NetWare: A Novell developed Network Operating System (NOS). Provides file and printer sharing among networks of PC. Each NetWare network must have at least one file server, and access to other resources is dependent on connecting to and logging into the file server. The file server(s) control user logins and access to other network clients, such as user PC, print servers, modem/fax servers, disk/file servers, etc..

Network: An interconnected system of computers that can communicate with each other and share files, data and resources.

Network Address: Every node on a network has one or more addresses associated with it, including at least one fixed hardware address such as "ae-34-2c-1d-69-f1" assigned by the device manufacturer. Most nodes also have protocol specific addresses assigned by the network manager.

Network Management: Administrative services for managing a network, including configuring and tuning, maintaining network operation, monitoring network performance, and diagnosing network problems.

New Release: A new version of a product that incorporates a series of product updates and may incorporate other changes and improvements.

Node: Any intelligent device connected to the network. This includes terminal servers, host computers, and any other devices (such as printers and terminals) that are directly connected to the network. A node can be thought of as any device that has a "hardware address."

Non-Contact Readers: A scanner that does not have to physically touch the bar code to read it. Non-contact readers are generally more expensive than contact readers.

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OCR: (optical character recognition) A technology that allows dots or pixels comprising characters in a bitmapped image to be converted into ASCII text. (optical character recognition) A technology that allows dots or pixels comprising characters in a bitmapped image to be converted into ASCII text. (optical character recognition) A technology that allows dots or pixels comprising characters in a bitmapped image to be converted into ASCII text.

ODBC: (Open Database Connectivity). A standard that allows databases created by various database management programs to be accessed using a common interface independent of the database file format. By relying on ODBC, one can write an application that uses the same code to read records from various database types. Internally, ODBC drivers use a form of SQL to carry out database operations.

OLE: (Object Linking and Embedding) A complex specifications that describes the interfaces used for such tasks as embedding objects created by one application within documents created by another, performing drag-and-drop data transfers within or between applications, creating automation servers that expose their inner functionality to other programs, and much more.

OSHA: (Occupational Safety and Health Act). Lays down standards for a vast number of safety and health requirements. Administers and enforces compliance with the act.

Object-Oriented Software: Software built using libraries of reusable, extensive and configurable software modules. Objects are software modules with strictly defined inputs and outputs which are easy to modify. The result is better software that is easier to understand and takes less time to write.

Obsolescence: The condition of being out-of-date. A loss of value occasioned by new developments which place the older property at a competitive advantage. A factor in depreciation.

Open Systems: Applications that once used to be the domain of a particular hardware supplier can be provided by other vendors.

Operations Analysis: A study of an operation or series of operations involving people, equipment, and processes for the purpose of investigating the effectiveness of specific operations or groups so that improvements can be developed which will raise productivity, reduce costs, improve quality, reduce accident hazards, and attain other desired objectives.

Operator Transaction Time: This is the time an operator spends processing the transaction.

Order Batch: An accumulation of orders released for order picking.

Order Picker Truck: A high-lift truck controllable by an operator stationed on a platform movable with the load-engaging means and intended for (manual) stock selection. The truck may be capable of self-loading and/or tiering.

Order Picking: (1) Selection and gathering of items which a customer is buying in a single lot at one time. (2) The selection of less-than-unit-load quantities of material for individual orders.

Order Picking Truck: (1) A fork lift type machine on which the driver rides up and down on a mast in an open front cab. The vehicle is specifically designed for order picking and is not suitable for pallet storage/retrieval. (2) A manually loaded industrial truck equipped with both a load platform, and an operator control platform movable as a unit on a mast.

Order Picking and Stacking Truck: a self-loading industrial truck, primarily intended for right-angle stacking and order picking, equipped with an operator control platform that moves vertically on the mast with the load-engaging means.

Orders: Orders are one or more lines going to a specific customer or destination.

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PBX: (Private Branch Exchange) A telephone system for a specific location that connects to the outside network. (Private Branch Exchange) A telephone system for a specific location that connects to the outside network. (Private Branch Exchange) A telephone system for a specific location that connects to the outside network.

PCR: (Problem Correction Request) A written request for technical support initiated by the End-User support contact and forwarded to the ASAP support desk.

PCS: (Print Contrast Signal) A measurement of the ratio of the reflectivities between bars and spaces of a symbol, commonly expressed in percent.

PLC: (Programmable Logic Controller) A solid-state device which has been designated as a direct replacement for relays and "hard wired" solid-state electronics. The logic can be altered without wiring changes. Its features include; operation in hostile industrial environments without fans. air conditioning, or electrical filtering; programmed with a simple ladder diagram language; easily reprogrammed with a portable panel if requirements change; controller is reusable if equipment is no longer required; indicator lights provided at major diagnostic points to simplify troubleshooting.

Packet: A block of data that goes over the network. It contains the data itself plus the identification information for sending and receiving stations.

Packing: The placing of numerous small cartons comprising different lines into an outer case to protect them during subsequent handling.

Pallet Storage Rack: A structure composed of two or more upright frames, beams, and connectors, for the purpose of supporting palletized materials in storage. Among the common methods of assembly are welded, bolted or clipped.

Payback Period: (1) regarding an investment, the number of years (or months) required for the related profit or savings in operating cost to equal the amount of said investment. (2) The period of time at which a machine, facility, or other investment has produced sufficient net revenue to recover its investment costs.

Performance Specifications: the specification of various important parameters or capabilities in the design and operation. Performance is defined in terms of: (a) the quality of behavior, (b) the degree to which a specified result is achieved, and (c) a quantitative index of behavior or achievement, such as speed, power, or accuracy.

Pick Aisle: A pick aisle is nay aisle in which an order selector can pick orders.

Pick Cart: A pick cart is usually a manually propelled order picking device designed to hold small packages and tote boxes.

Pick Line (Selection Line): An arrangement of SKU in some ordering system to facilitate selection to satisfy orders.

Pick Slot: A location in the warehouse where merchandise is available for order selection (synonym - picking face).

Pick Time: The amount of time required by an order picker to select merchandise, place it into a picking container, mark a picking container, and mark a picking list.

Picking Face: A facing from which merchandise is picked to fill orders (synonym - pick slot).

Picking Rate: This is usually expressed in terms of number of cases or number of lines picked by one order selector per hour.

Pickup and Delivery (P&D) Station: A location at which a load entering or leaving storage is supported in a manner suitable for handling by the S/R machine (synonyms - pickup and discharge station, transfer station, I/O station, feed/discharge station).

Piece: Is a unit that must be physically picked. If a box of 10,000 bolts is to be picked, that is only one piece, but if the box is to be opened and two bolts picked from it, then two pieces are to be picked

Point-of-Sale (POS) Data Entry System: A system in which actual transactions are recorded by terminals operating on-line to a central computer, such as supermarket registers. These systems frequently employ optical scanning as a means of capturing data.

Pool Shipment: Goods ordered for two or more customers and/or destinations loaded into a single common carrier unit (as truck or rail car).

Port: The physical connector on a device enabling the connection to be made.

Power Surge: Also known as a transient overvoltage, voltage spike, or impulse, the power surge is a very brief overvoltage caused by lightning striking a power line or by certain types of solid-state dimmer switches and variable-speed motor controls. Transient overvoltages can damage computers and networking equipment and, at the very least, they can be erroneously interpreted as data, leading to problems similar to those caused by electrical noise contamination.

Pre-emptive Multitasking: The system prioritizes each call made to the processor so all open applications constantly trade off processor time.

Present Worth: (1) The equivalent value at the present, based on time value of money. (2) The monetary sum which is equivalent to a future sum(s) when interest is compounded at a given rate. (3) The discounted value of future sums.

Primary Location: The slot from which merchandise is selected to fill orders.

Print quality: The measure of compliance of a bar code symbol to the requirements of dimensional tolerance, edge roughness, spots, voids, reflectance, quiet zone, and encodation.

Product Inspection: A Step-by-step review of the product for ergonomics, functionality and integration into the existing system.

Productivity: (1) The ratio of output to total inputs. (2) The ratio of actual production to standard production, applicable to either an individual worker or a group of workers. (3) A standard method of measuring the efficiency of a warehouse by assessing the amount of work and rate of work attained individually and collectively by the workforce.

Product Update: A revision to the software or user manual designed to correct an error or improve product performance, or an equivalent solution to work around the error or problem.

Product Walkthrough: Program author leads a group through a manual or simulated execution of the program.

Project Management: This includes the areas or project evaluation and scheduling plus project coordination and control. Useful techniques in project management include the concepts of cash flow and present worth, decision tree analysis, critical resource analysis and critical path scheduling.

Protocol: A defined means of establishing criteria for receiving and transmitting data through communication channels.

Proximity Sensor: A device which senses that an object is only a short distance (e.g. a few inches or feet) away, and/or measures how far away it is. Proximity sensors typically work on the principals of triangulation of reflected light, elapsed time, elapsed time for reflected sound, intensity-induced eddy currents, magnetic fields, back pressure from air jets, and others.

Proximity Switch: A special limit switch actuated by the magnetic effect of a ferrous object moving near its operating head.

Pull Cord Switch: A switch (or switches in a long conveyor) mounted along a conveyor stringer and manually actuated by a cord running the full length of the conveyor. The switch (or switches) may be actuated from any point along the conveyor length as an emergency stop.

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Queue: A line formed by loads or items while waiting for processing.

Quick Response: The business strategy of shortening cycle time between bar code scanning at the checkout counter by electronically transmitting sales data back from the retailer to the supplier.

Quiet Zone: A clear space, containing no dark marks, that precedes the start character of a bar code symbol and follows that stop characters. Sometimes called the clear area.

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RAM: (Random Access Memory) Information can be entered and retrieved from such a memory. (Random Access Memory) Information can be entered and retrieved from such a memory. (Random Access Memory) Information can be entered and retrieved from such a memory.

RAID Level 1: (Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives) Data is mirrored, that is, duplicated onto a second set of hard disks.

RAID Level 5: In a Raid Level 1 configuration, data is stripped by sectors across all drives in the array, and parity information is interleaved with the data.

ROM: (Read Only Memory). A memory device that retains its information even when power to it is removed. A ROM version of a network device does not need to download, since the ROM contains the entire executable code and thus never needs to reload it. Frequently the ROM is provided as "flash ROM", which can be reprogrammed by downloading if the user chooses.

Random Sample: A sample selected in such a way that each element of the population being samples has an equal chance of being selected.

Real Time: Computer communicates continuously with a device while the operation is performed.

Real Time Processing: The immediate and continuous processing of information gathered from a data collection method.

Receiving: (1) The function of accepting, recording, and reporting merchandise into a facility. (2) The receipt of inbound supplies; includes planning, handling , and document processing incident thereto.

Receiving Area: Area used for checking, inspecting, and preparing incoming material (both new procurement and returns), prior to its delivery to storage areas.

Receiving Dock: An area reserved for the unloading of delivery vehicles

Redundancy: The ability to continue operations when a primary system fails by relying on a backup system.

Redundant Components: Indicates which server subsystems have backup components. This means that if one component fails, another one can continue to support the system without interruption of service.

Reengineering: The fundamental rethinking and radical design of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed. Instituting an overall change in the way companies are structured and run.

Reflectance: The ratio of the amount of light of a specified wavelength or series of wavelengths reflected from a test surface to the amount of light reflected from a barium oxide or magnesium oxide standard under similar illumination conditions.

Registered Support Contact: The authorized individuals specified on the ASAP Customer Support Program Registration Form or Renewal Form with whom ASAP communicates when providing support services. The support contact must be the End-User employee. The support contacts are knowledgeable about how the supported software is being used and its operating environment and have received formal training by ASAP Automation.

Remote Support: The use of telecommunications via modem to provide remote diagnostic and product update capability.

Router: A network device that links two or more usually geographically separated LANs and forwards to each LAN only those messages intended for that network. This balances traffic and improves performance. More sophisticated routers can link LANs based on different protocols.

Repeater: A network device that repeats signals from one cable on to one or more other cables, while restoring signal timing and waveforms.

Replenishment: The function of transferring stock from a reserve storage area, or directly from shipping, to a primary picking location which has become empty.

Returns: Merchandise returned for credit by customer.

Reusable Container: A container intended for multiple cycles of use.

Ring: A network topology in which the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Data is transmitted from node to node around the loop always in the same direction.

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SCR: (Specification Change Request) Changes to an originally accepted Functional Design Document are instituted through an SCR form which must be approved by the customer. (Specification Change Request) Changes to an originally accepted Functional Design Document are instituted through an SCR form which must be approved by the customer. (Specification Change Request) Changes to an originally accepted Functional Design Document are instituted through an SCR form which must be approved by the customer.

SKU: (Stock Keeping Unit). Represents one unique inventory item. Example: one style of shirt, in six colors and five collar sizes, would be 30 different SKU.

SMP: (Symmetric Multiprocessing) Assumes that all processors are equally capable of servicing the operating system. Individual threads of a particular process can run on the first available processor. The processing load is balanced among processors, so that some CPUs are not overutilized while others sit idle.

SNMP: (Simple Network Management Protocol). Allows a TCP/IP host running an SNMP application to query other nodes for network-related statistics and error conditions. The other hosts, which provide SNMP agents, respond to these queries and allow a single host to gather network statistics from many other network nodes.

SOW: (Statement of Work) The work to be provided by ASAP Automation as described in its proposal and Functional Specifications Document.

SQL: (Structured Query Language) A query language developed by IBM that relies on simple English-language statements to perform database queries. SQL allows databases from different manufacturers and on different types of computers to be queried using a standard syntax.

Safety Stock: Quantity of an inventory item carried in stores or stock as a hedge against stockout resulting from above average or unexpected demand during procurement lead time - (synonyms - minimum or protective inventory, buffer inventory, cushion, or reserve.

Seasonal: Daily, weekly, or monthly sales data showing a more or less repetitive pattern.

Seasonality: Storage and shipment of material from a warehouse caused by seasonal surges in customer demands.

Secondary Location: Back-up or reserve storage, or secondary location for order selection.

Security/Fault Tolerance: A server equipped with redundant components and basic security features thus providing strong insurance against casual tempering, corrupted data, and hardware failure.

Selective Rack(s): Commonly referred to as pallet racks running parallel to the aisle each consisting of a pair of horizontal beams on which pallets may be placed one deep. These beams are connected to the front and rear columns of a vertical truss. Every pallet face is exposed to the aisle providing 100% selectivity.

Selectivity: Ease of accessibility of merchandise. The number of "facings" or immediately accessible storage slots. Selectivity is sometimes expressed as the percentage of the total storage slots which are immediately accessible.

Serpentine Pick: A travel path used by an order selector that takes him past every picking slot in the warehouse, to fill one order.

Server: A computer and/or program that accepts, controls and executes requests for processing or data access from other computers and/or client programs in a network. It performs such services as resource allocation and sharing, file printing, and file downloading.

Session: A connection to a network service.

Shelf: A horizontal supporting surface above floor level within a rack or storage section.

Shelving: Shelving is used for economical storage of small hand stackable items which are not suited to mechanized handling and storage due to their handling characteristics, activity, or quantity.

Shipping: (1) Actions necessary to deliver material to a carrier for movement to a consignee. (2) The function of recording, reporting, and sending merchandise to a consumer.

Shipping Area: An area used to assemble and prepare material for loading in a truck, railcar, etc..

Shipping Dock: An area reserved for the loading of delivery vehicles.

Shrinkage: An inventory adjustment because of pilferage over or under shipment, or receiving errors.

Simulation: The process of "test-driving" a system and warehouse prior to installation. This is normally done on a computer, using a mathematical model of an existing or planned operation.

Single Deep Storage: Loads stored one deep on each side of the aisle.

Slot: A location in the warehouse with a specific address.

Slotting: A numbering technique used to provide an "address" or location for all products in the warehouse.

Software Problem: Defective software distribution media, and/or software function which is not in conformance with the user manual or other documentation provided with the supported software.

Software Escrow: An arrangement in which ASAP places a copy of the source code and other materials needed for the ongoing maintenance of the product with a third party "technology asset manager".

Sorting Conveyor: A conveyor which receives mixed unit loads and discharges them to segregated spaces or conveyors in response to an automatic dispatch control.

Source Code: Programs in an uncompiled or unassembled form.

Staging Areas: Areas between different warehouse operations where goods are temporarily stored awaiting processing by the next operation.

Start/Stop Character or Pattern: A special bar code character that provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as scanning direction indicator. The start character is normally at the left-hand end of a horizontally oriented symbol. The stop character is normally at the right-hand end of a horizontally oriented symbol.

Stocking: Placing merchandise into storage and/or picking slots (synonyms - putaway, replenishment).

Straddle Truck: Fork lift truck with front-mounted outriggers which straddles the load being handled. Also a large material handling vehicle which straddles the load and lifts it from above.

Switch: Multiport Ethernet device designed to increase network performance by allowing only essential traffic on the attached individual Ethernet segments. Packets are filtered or forwarded based upon their source and destination addresses.

Symbol: A combination of bar code characters including start/stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check characters required by a particular symbology, that forms a complete, scannable entity.

Symbol Length: The distance between the outside edges of the quiet zone on the two ends of a bar code symbol.

System Acceptance: The earlier of: (i) the date on which the System Demonstration has been satisfactorily completed; or (ii) 30 days from the date on which the End-User has placed the System in Beneficial Use, including but not limited to using the System for production purposes.

System Configuration: An iterative design process consisting of the evaluation of the factors affecting products and production tasks, selection of a design concept based on these factors, and evaluation of the performance of the selected concept. Following the results of the evaluation, a system can be refined and reevaluated, or discarded.

System Demonstration: The process of demonstrating to the End-User that the System meets the requirements of the Functional Specifications Document through the execution of the Acceptance Test Elements leading to System Acceptance. The date of completion of System Demonstration, if it occurs prior to the use of the System by the End-User, constitutes the date at which the System is tendered for Beneficial Use. Under mutually agreed conditions by ASAP Automation and the End-User, the End-User may also place the System in use and reach Beneficial Use prior to System Demonstration.

Systems Integrator: A vendor or consultant hired to provide or sub-contract for all equipment/hardware and software needed for an installation. The authorized representatives of ASAP Automation responsible for integrating the ASAP software into a system solution.

System Readiness: The date upon which, for the first time, the System meets the requirements of the SOW. At completion of System Readiness, ASAP Automation shall submit to the End-User a written Notification of System Readiness. Such notification initiates immediate availability for Beneficial Use and System Demonstration within one (1) week.

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10BASE2: Ethernet running on thin coax network cable.

10BASE-T: Ethernet running on unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. Note that 10BASE-T is a point-to-point network media, with one end of the cable typically going to a repeater/hub and the other to the network device.

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TCP/IP: (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is an established protocol that provides platform-independent support for network communications, such as routing traffic across networks. This provides a relatively simple, standardized means of connecting large, heterogeneous networks. (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is an established protocol that provides platform-independent support for network communications, such as routing traffic across networks. This provides a relatively simple, standardized means of connecting large, heterogeneous networks. (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is an established protocol that provides platform-independent support for network communications, such as routing traffic across networks. This provides a relatively simple, standardized means of connecting large, heterogeneous networks.

TSR: (Terminate-and-stay-resident) The common name for DOS programs that terminate but remain resident in memory so they can operate in the background while other programs execute in the foreground.

Technical Support: The time spent by ASAP customer support personnel on the telephone with the support contact, and time spent by ASAP customer support personnel in researching, simulating, testing, documenting, etc. the problem or question.

Thermal Transfer Printing: This technology involves printing on facestock which is not heat sensitive; instead, a dry wax or resin-based ribbon is used. The ribbon travels through the print path on top of the label. As it passes under the printhead, the heat melts the ink from the ribbon and transfers it to the label material.

Thickwire: Half inch diameter coax cable.

Thinwire: Thin coaxial cable similar to that used for television/video hookups.

Throughput: (1) The amount of merchandise shipped through a system or warehouse in a given time. This is referred to in cases, lines, or tons of product. (2) The rate of movement of material through a system.

Time Study: A work measurement technique consisting of careful time measurement of the task with a time measuring instrument, adjusted for any observed variance from normal effort or pace to allow adequate time for such items as foreign elements, unavoidable or machine delays, rest to overcome fatigue, and personal needs. Learning or progress effects may also be considered. If the task is of sufficient length, it is normally broken down into short, relatively homogeneous work elements, each of which is treated separately as well as in combination with the rest.

Token: The character sequence or frame, passed in sequence from node to node, to indicate that the node controlling ir has the right to transmit for a given amount of time.

Token Ring: Developed by IBM, this 4 or 16 Mbps network uses a ring topology and a token-passing access method.

Topology: The arrangement of the nodes and connecting hardware that comprises the network. Types include the ring, bus, star and tree.

Tote Box: A small durable container usually used for order picking and/or shipping of small items.

Transceiver: The actual device that interfaces between the network and the local node. The term generally refers to to any connector such as a MAU, that actively converts signals between the network and the local node.

Transfer Mechanism: Any mechanism that transfers objects onto or off of a conveyor line or from one conveyor line to another.

Travel Expenses: Out-of-pocket expenses for work done at a customer location such as meals, lodging, and transportation.

Turret Truck: A class of material handling vehicles in which the forks are attached to a device permitting their rotation to service either side of the storage aisle. Turret trucks can swing their forks through 180 degrees and can load pallets from either side of the machine. These units vary in their aisle requirements and in their flexibility but generally operate in aisle widths of 50 to 84 inches and with clearances only slightly larger than the size of the pallet itself.

Twisted Pair Cable: Inexpensive, multiple conductor cable comprised of one or more pairs of 18 to 24 gauge copper strands. The strands are twisted to improve protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The cable, which may be either shielded or unshielded, is used in low-speed communications, as telephone cable. It is used only in baseband networks because of its narrow bandwidth.

Two Way Container: A container whose configuration permits retrieving or discharging from opposite direction along the same horizontal axis.

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UPC: Universal Product Code, the standard bar code symbol for retail food packages in the United States. Universal Product Code, the standard bar code symbol for retail food packages in the United States. Universal Product Code, the standard bar code symbol for retail food packages in the United States.

UPS - Standby Type: (Uninterruptible Power Supply) During normal operation, the UPS routes raw utility AC power directly to the computer while trickle-charging the battery. When the incoming utility voltage drops below a certain value (typically 102VAC), a detection circuit actuates a transfer switch to connect to battery power via a DC-to-AC inverter. This switchover causes a momentary loss of power of typically 5-20msec.

UPS - Line-Interactive Type: With this UPS type, utility-generated power supplies the load under normal conditions. But the line-interactive system has boost/buck circuits that can add to (boost) or oppose (buck) the AC voltage from the power line. The boost/buck circuits offer voltage regulation, which can compensate for overvoltages or undervoltages in the AC input to the UPS.

UPS - On-Line Type: With an on-line UPS, AC power from the electric utility passes through an AC-to-DC converter to become direct current, which charges a storage battery. In addition to supplying DC to the battery, it also supplies the DC-to-AC inverter into which the computer load is plugged. Because the load is always powered by the DC-to-AC inverter, an on-line UPS has no switching time.

Unitization: Securing material to a pallet by strapping, wrapping, or other means to provide a secure load for handling by a fork truck.

Unix: A multitasking, multi-user computer operating system developed by AT&T.

UTP: Unshielded twisted pair, one or more cable pairs surrounded by insulation. UTP is commonly used a telephone wire.

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Vertical Bar Code: A code pattern presented in such orientation that the axis of the symbol from start tot stop is perpendicular to the horizon. the individual bars are in an array appearing as rungs of a ladder. A code pattern presented in such orientation that the axis of the symbol from start tot stop is perpendicular to the horizon. the individual bars are in an array appearing as rungs of a ladder. A code pattern presented in such orientation that the axis of the symbol from start tot stop is perpendicular to the horizon. the individual bars are in an array appearing as rungs of a ladder.

Voice Recognition: A process by which a computer or control mechanism can accept data input by spoken command with no intermediate key entry.

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WAN: (Wide Area Network). A network using common carrier transmission services for transmission of data over a large geographical area. (Wide Area Network). A network using common carrier transmission services for transmission of data over a large geographical area. (Wide Area Network). A network using common carrier transmission services for transmission of data over a large geographical area.

Wand: A hand held scanning device used as a contact bar code reader. It is also referred to as a light pen. It is shaped like an oversize pen and an operator must guide it across the bar code.

Warehouse: A building for the storage of merchandise or commodities.

Wedge Reader: A device which transmits scanned bar code data to the CRT display just as if it had come from a keyboard.

Work Measurement: A generic term used to refer to the setting of a time standard by recognized industrial engineering technique, such as time study, standard data, work sampling, or predetermined motion time systems.

Work Sampling: An application of random sampling techniques to the study of work activities so that the proportions of time devoted to different elements of work can be estimated with a given degree of statistical validity.

Workstation: An established location in which something or someone stands or is assigned to stand or remain. This space includes that area necessary for the operation, material being processed or worked on, and the auxiliary equipment necessary to perform the assigned function.

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X Dimension: the nominal width dimension of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code symbol. the nominal width dimension of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code symbol. the nominal width dimension of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code symbol.

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Z Dimension: The achieved width of the narrow elements, calculated as the average of the average narrow bar width and the average narrow space width. The achieved width of the narrow elements, calculated as the average of the average narrow bar width and the average narrow space width. The achieved width of the narrow elements, calculated as the average of the average narrow bar width and the average narrow space width.

Zero Pressure Conveyor: A type of conveyor designed to have zero build-up of pressure between adjacent packages or cartons.

Zone: An order picker dedicated work area.

Zone Picking: A method used to divide a warehouse into order selection areas. Zone picking is a sequential operation in which individual items for a specific customer are picked one after another by one or several order pickers.

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